• Quaternary (2.58 Ma)

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Gelasian - Holocene
    In short
    Geological period beginning with the Gauss/Matuyama palaeomagnetic reversal and largely influenced by successive glacials in a context of increased global ice volume. In Switzerland one can assume that all of the (peri)glacial deposits belong to the Quaternary.
    • Holocene (11.7 ka)

      Name Origin

      holos = fully, entirely , kaïno = recent

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      In short

      Most recent stratigraphic unit referring to the warm episod that began with the end of the last glacial period.

      Age
      Holocene
      • Meghalayan (4.2 ka)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Last chronostratigraphic stage of the Holocene.

        Age
        Holocene
      • Subatlantic

        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        In short
        Current climatic/palynological stage of the European Quaternary (approximate age range: from 2800-2450 calBP = 850-500 BC to present).
        Age
        Holocene
      • Subboreal

        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        In short
        Palynological stage of the European Quaternary (approximate age range: 5500-2800 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene
      • Northgrippian (8.2 ka)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Middle chronostratigraphic stage of the Holocene.

        Age
        Holocene
      • Atlantic

        Name Origin
        Warm and moist climatic phase originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs.
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        In short
        Palynological stage depicting a climatic optimum in Europe, and characterised by the presence of oak, elm, linden and iva (approximate range: 9000-5500 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene
      • Greenlandian (11.7 ka)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subperiod
        Status
        local name (informal)
        In short

        First chronostratigraphic stage of the Holocene.

        Age
        Holocene
      • Boreal

        Name Origin
        Cold climatic phase originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs.
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        In short
        Palynological stage of the European Quaternary (approximate age range: 10200-9000 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene
      • Preboreal

        Name Origin
        Transitional climatic phase originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs.
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        In short
        Palynological stage of the European Quaternary, at the base of the Holocene (approximate age range: 11650-10200 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene
    • Pleistocene (2.58 Ma)

      Name Origin
      pleistos = le plus , kaïno = récent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Gelasian
      • Late Pleistocene (129 ka)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        By definition, the Late Pleistocene corresponds to the last interglacial–glacial cycle (Gondiswil Interglacial and Birrfeld Glacial in Switzerland).

        • Younger Dryas

          Name Origin

          Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Cold floral stage at the end of the Late Pleistocene (12900-11500 BP = 11000-9500 av. J.C.).
          Age
          Spätes Pleistozän
        • Allerød

          Name Origin

          Named after the town of Allerød (Denmark).

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Warmer climatic oscillation of the late glacial Pleistocene (11800-11000 BP = 11400-10730 av. J.C.), identified on the basis of pollen analysis.
          Age
          Spätes Pleistozän
        • Older Dryas

          Name Origin

          Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          (12000-11800 BP = 11590-11400 av. J.C.)
          Age
          Spätes Pleistozän
        • Bølling

          Name Origin
          série de tourbes découvertes au lac Bølling, dans le Jutland central
          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Floral stage (13000-12000 BP = 11720-11590 av. J.C.).
          Age
          Spätes Pleistozän
        • Oldest Dryas

          Name Origin

          Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Ab ca. 18'000-15'000 BP, je nach Autor.
          Age
          Spätes Pleistozän
        • Eemian

          Name Origin

          Named after the river Eem in the area of the city of Amersfoort (Netherlands).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Nomenclatorial Remarks
          Riss-Würm interglacial (Alps), Ipswichian (United Kingdom), Mikulin interglacial (Russia), Valdivia interglacial (Chile), Sangamonian (North America)
          In short
          Initial palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Late Pleistocene («Tarantian») of NW Europe, roughly corresponding to MIS-5e and to the Riss-Würm Interglacial.
          Age
          Spätes Pleistozän
      • Middle Pleistocene (774 ka)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        In Switzerland the age of the Hochterrasse deposits roughly coincides with the Middle Pleistocene.

        • Chibanian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          In short

          New stage name for the Middle Pleistocene.

          Age
          Middle Pleistocene
        • Saalian

          Name Origin

          Named after the river Saale (Deutschland).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Terminal substage of the Middle Pleistocene of NW Europe, between Holsteinian and Eemian, characterised by cold climate (culminating in the Alpine region with the Riss glaciation).
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene
        • Holsteinian

          Name Origin

          Named after the Holstein region (N Germany).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Nomenclatorial Remarks
          Hoxnian (United Kingdom), Likhvinian (Russia)
          In short
          Palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle Pleistocene (Ionian) of NW Europe, corresponding to MIS-11 and to the Mindel-Riss Interglacial.
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene
        • Elsterian

          Name Origin

          Named after the river Weisse Elster (E Germany), a tributary of the river Saale.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Nomenclatorial Remarks
          Anglian (United Kingdom), Okian (Russia)
          In short
          Substage of the Middle Pleistocene of NW Europe, corresponding to MIS-12 and characterised by a cold climate (culminating in the Alpine region with the Mindel glaciation).
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene
        • Cromerian

          Name Origin

          Named after the East Anglian town of Cromer (UK).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Initial palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle Pleistocene («Ionian») of NW Europe, encompassing several glacial/interglacial cycles under a relatively mild climate (Günz-Mindel Interglacial).
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene
      • Early Pleistocene (2.58 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        In short
        Geological subepoch characterised by a predominantly reversed polarised paleomagnetic field (Matuyama) and the onset of large glacial fluctuations.
        Age
        Gelasian
        • Calabrian (1.80 Ma)

          Name Origin

          Named after the Calabria region (Italy).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          In short
          Second substage of the Early Pleistocene.
          Age
          Early Pleistocene
          • Sicilian

            Name Origin

            Named after Sicilia (Italia).

            Rank
            chronostratigraphic Substage
            Status
            valid
            In short
            Regional substage (= late Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
            Age
            Calabrian
          • Emilian

            Name Origin

            Named after the Emilia region (Italia).

            Rank
            chronostratigraphic Substage
            Status
            valid
            In short
            Regional substage (= middle Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
            Age
            Calabrian
          • Santernian

            Rank
            chronostratigraphic Substage
            Status
            valid
            In short
            Regional substage (= early Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
            Age
            Calabrian
        • Gelasian (2.58 Ma)

          Name Origin

          Named after the town of Gela (Italia), Sicilia.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Age
          Early Pleistocene
  • Neogene (23.03 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    neos = new , genos = birth

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Aquitanian - Piacenzian
    In short

    Formal name for the «late Tertiary» period (Miocene and Pliocene).

    • Pliocene (5.333 Ma)

      Name Origin

      plios = plus , kaïno = récent

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Zanclean
      • Piacenzian (3.600 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Piacenzia (Italia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        late Pliocene
      • Zanclean (5.333 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Derived from Zancla, the pre-Roman name for the town of Messina in Sicily (Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Pliocene.

        Age
        Pliocene
    • Miocene (23.03 Ma)

      Name Origin

      meios = less, kaïno = recent

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Aquitanian
      • Messinian (7.246 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Messina (Italia), Sicilia.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Last stage of the Miocene.

        Age
        late Miocene
      • Tortonian (11.63 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the city of Tortona (Italia), Piemonte.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Stage of the Late Miocene.

        Age
        late Miocene
      • Serravallian (13.82 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Serravalle Scrivia (Italia), Piemonte.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Stage of the Middle Miocene.

        Age
        middle Miocene
      • Langhian (15.97 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Langhe area north of Ceva (Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>le Langhe (plural)</p>
        In short

        Stage of the Middle Miocene.

        Age
        middle Miocene
        • Nördlinger-Ries-Impakt

          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Meteorischer Impakt im Grenzgebiet zwischen Schwäbischer Alb und Fränkischer Alb, der durch Coesit-führende Impaktite (insb. Suevit = Schwabenstein) und Tektite (sog. Moldavit) bewiesen wurde.
          Age
          Langhian
      • Burdigalian (20.44 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Bordeaux = Burdigala (Gironde, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Latin: Burdigalia</p>
        In short

        Second stage of the Miocene.

        Age
        early Miocene
      • Aquitanian (23.03 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Aquitaine region (France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Miocene Series, and hence base of the Neogene System.

        Age
        early Miocene
  • Palaeogene (66.0 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    palaeos = ancient , genos = birth

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Danian - late Oligocene
    In short

    Formal name for the «early Tertiary» period (Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene).

    • Oligocene (33.9 Ma)

      Name Origin

      oligos = peu , kaïno = récent

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Rupelian
      • Chattian (27.82 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Chatti tribe (Deutschland).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Oligocene
      • Rupelian (33.9 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Rupel river (Belgium).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Oligocene. Its definition was originally based on the Rupel Group.

        Age
        early Oligocene
    • Eocene (56.0 Ma)

      Name Origin

      eos = aurore, début , kaïno = récent

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Ypresian
      • Priabonian (37.71 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Priabona (Italia), Vicenza.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Parastratotypes à Ghenderle, Brendola, Mossano et Possagno (Cita 1969) ; calcaires marneux à Echinides de Priabona (Boussac 1909a)</p>
        In short

        Last stage of the Eocene. Definition originally based on the «assises de la Granella», «groupe des couches à Orbitoides de Priabona» and «marnes de Brendola».

        Age
        late Eocene
      • Bartonian (~41 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Barton-on-Sea (Hampshire, UK).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Second stage of the Middle Eocene. Its definition was originally based both on the Barton Beds (Hampshire) and the Sables d'Auvers-Beauchamp (Paris Basin).

        Age
        middle Eocene
        • Marinesian

          Name Origin

          Named after the village of Marines (Val-d'Oise, France)

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short

          Second substage of the Bartonian in the Paris Basin. Original definition based on the «Sables de Marines». It corresponds to the Late Bartonian of the International Time Scale.

          Age
          Bartonian
        • Auversian

          Name Origin

          Named after the town of Auvers-sur-Oise (Val d'Oise, France) ; le stratotype des sablières du Bois-le-Roi est en cours d'aménagement.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid term
          Bartonian
          In short

          First substage of the Bartonian in the Paris Basin. It corresponds to the Early Bartonian of the International Time Scale.

          Age
          early Bartonian
      • Lutetian (47.8 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Paris = Lutetia (France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Second stage of the Eocene.

        Age
        middle Eocene
      • Ypresian (56.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Ypres = Ieper(Belgium).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Eocene.

        Age
        early Eocene
        • Cuisian

          Name Origin

          Named after the village of Cuise-la-Motte (Oise, France).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Last, informal substage of the Ypresian.
          Age
          late Ypresian
        • Sparnacian

          Name Origin

          Named after the town of Épernay = Sparnacum (Marne, France).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Early Ypresian of the Paris Basin.
          Age
          early Eocene
    • Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)

      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      In short
      Global thermal maximum marked by a strong negative anomaly in δ13C values at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.
    • Paleocene (66.0 Ma)

      Name Origin

      palaeos = ancient , eos = dawn, kaïno = recent (i.e. Palaeo-Eocene, see Pulvertaft 1999)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      • Thanetian (59.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Isle of Thanet (Kent, UK).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Last stage of the Paleocene.

        Age
        late Paleocene
      • Selandian (61.6 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Zealand island (Denmark).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        middle Paleocene
      • Danian (66.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Latin name for Denmark.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Paleocene (and hence of the Cenozoic as well).

        Age
        early Paleocene
  • Cretaceous (~ 145 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    Named derived from the characteristic chalk deposits (Latin: creta = craie, Kreide) of the Paris-London Basin.

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Berriasian - Maastrichtian
    • Late Cretaceous (100.5 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Cenomanian
      • Maastrichtian (72.1 +/-0.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Maastricht (Netherlands).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Last stage of the Cretaceous (and hence of the Mesozoic as well).

        Age
        Maastrichtian
      • Campanian (83.6 +/-0.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Champagne de Saintonge (Charentes, France), near Cognac.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Campanian
      • Santonian (86.3 +/-0.5 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the former province of Saintonge (Charentes, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Santonian
      • Coniacian (89.8 +/-0.3 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Cognac (Charente-Maritime, France), where the historical stratotype lies.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Initially defined as the basal stage of the «Craie supérieure» (chalk ; cf. Cretaceous).

        Age
        Coniacian
      • Turonian (93.9 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after Turonia, the Latine name for Tours (France), Indre-et-Loire.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Turonian
      • Bonarelli level (OAE-2)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Italian geologist Guido Bonarelli (1871-1951).

        Rank
        Oceanic Anoxic Event
        Status
        valid
        In short

        Oceanic anoxic event at the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary (around 93 Ma ago) with a major impact on the chemistry of the oceans worldwide. This event correlates with a marine extinction event.

        Age
        Late Cenomanian
      • Cenomanian (100.5 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named atfer Cenomanum, the Latine name for Le Mans (France), Sarthe.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Late Cretaceous.

        Age
        Cenomanian
    • Early Cretaceous (~ 145 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Berriasian
      • Albian (~ 113.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Aube region (France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Latin: Alba</p>
        In short

        Last stage of the Early Cretaceous.

        Age
        Albian
        • Vraconnien

          Name Origin

          La Vraconnaz = La Vraconne (VD), Saint-Croix

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          obsolete term (disused)
          Nomenclatorial Remarks
          <p>Vraconnin (Mayer-Eymar 1885) = Albien moyen à tardif &gt;&lt; Rhotomagin = Vraconnien !</p>
          In short

          Local chronostratigraphic subdivision corresponding to the late Albian (and earliest Cenomanian).

          Age
          Latest Albian
        • Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1d)

          Rank
          Oceanic Anoxic Event
          Status
          valid
          Age
          Latest Albian
        • Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1c)

          Rank
          chemostratigraphy
          Status
          valid
          In short
          Oceanic anoxic event of the Late Albian.
          Age
          Middle Albian
      • Paquier Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1b)

        Rank
        Oceanic Anoxic Event
        Status
        valid
        In short

        Oceanic anoxic event of the Early Albian.

        Age
        Spätestes Aptien
      • Aptian (~ 121.4 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Apt (Vaucluse, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Stage of the Early Cretaceous.

        Age
        Aptian
        • Clansayésien

          Name Origin

          Named after the village of Clansayes (Drôme, France).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Local chronostratigraphic substage corresponding to the Late Aptian.
          Age
          Late Aptian
        • Gargasian

          Name Origin

          Named after the village of Gargas (Vaucluse, France).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Local chronostratigraphic subdivision corresponding to the latest Early Aptian and to the Middle Aptian.
          Age
          Early Aptian
        • Bedoulian

          Name Origin

          Named after the village of La Bédoule (Bouches-du-Rhône, France), near Cassis.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid term
          Aptian
          In short
          Local chronostratigraphic subdivision designating the Early Aptian. The Bedoulian, based on pelagic deposits (Marno-calcaires de la Bedoule), is approximately equivalent to the Rhodanian, which is based on littoral deposits.
          Age
          Early Aptian
        • Selli level (OAE 1a)

          Name Origin

          Named after the Italian geologist Raimondo Selli (1916-1983).

          Rank
          Oceanic Anoxic Event
          Status
          valid
          In short

          Oceanic anoxic event at the base of the Aptian (around 120 Ma ago) with a major impact on the chemistry of the oceans worldwide.

          Age
          Early Aptian
      • Barremian (~ 129.4 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Barrême (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        ... based on the Marno-calcaires de Barrême.

        Age
        Barremian
      • Hauterivian (~ 132.6 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Hauterive (NE), NE Neuchâtel.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Hauterivian
        • Faraoni Oceanic Anoxic Event

          Rank
          Oceanic Anoxic Event
          Status
          valid
          Age
          Spätestes Hauterivien
      • Valanginian (~ 139.8 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Valangin (NE), at the upper end of the Gorges du Seyon (see also inventory of Swiss geotopes n°245).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Valendis = ancien nom allemand de Valangin</p>
        In short

        Second stage of the Early Cretaceous.

        Age
        Valanginian
        • Weissert Oceanic Anoxic Event

          Rank
          Oceanic Anoxic Event
          Status
          valid
          Age
          Spätes Valanginien
      • Berriasian (~ 145 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Berrias (Ardèche, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>The Berriasella jacobi Zone was previously&nbsp;placed at the end of the Tithonian.</p>
        In short

        First stage of the Cretaceous.

        Age
        Berriasian
  • Jurassic (201.3 +/-0.2 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    Named after the Jura Mountains (France, Switzerland).

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Hettangian - Tithonian
    • Late Jurassic (163.5 +/-1.0 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Oxfordian
      • Tithonian (152.1 +/-0.9 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named derived from the Greek mythology: Tithon was the son of Laomedon of Troy, who fell in love with Eos, Greek goddess of the dawn (thus prefiguring the Cretaceous system).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>The Berriasella jacobi Zone, previously&nbsp;placed at the end of the Tithonian, is now considered as defining the start&nbsp;of the Berriasian.</p>
        In short

        Last stage of the Jurassic.

        Age
        Tithonian
      • Kimmeridgian (157.3 +/-1.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Kimmeridge on the Dorset coast (UK). The Kimmeridge Clay Formation is the main oil source rock in the North Sea petroleum province.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Kimmeridgian
      • Oxfordian (163.5 +/-1.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the city of Oxford (UK).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Late Jurassic.

        Age
        Oxfordian
    • Middle Jurassic (174.1 +/-1.0 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Aalenian
      • Callovian (166.1 +/-1.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named derived from the old spelling of Kellaways Bridge (UK), Wiltshire, 2 miles NE Chippenham.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Last stage of the Middle Jurassic.

        Age
        Callovian
      • Bathonian (168.3 +/-1.3 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Bath (Somerset, UK), near Bristol. The city itself is largely built of Bath Stone, a bright white oolithic limestone that is quarried nearby.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Third stage of the Middle Jurassic.

        Age
        Bathonian
      • Bajocian (170.3 +/-1.4 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Bayeux (Calvados, France) in Normandy.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Latin: Bajocium</p>
        In short

        Second stage of the Middle Jurassic.

        Age
        Bajocian
        • Gaetani Oceanic Anoxic Event

          Name Origin

          Named in recognition of Maurizio Gaetani's work on Jurassic sedimentary successions of the Lombardy Basin.

          Rank
          Oceanic Anoxic Event
          Status
          informal term
          In short

          Black shale interval locally developped at the transition betwenn the Rosso Ammonitico Lombardo and the Radiolarite Group.

          Age
          frühes Bajocien
      • Aalenian (174.1 +/-1.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Aalen (Germany), Baden-Württemberg

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Middle Jurassic.

        Age
        Aalenian
    • Early Jurassic (201.3 +/-0.2 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Hettangian
      • Toarcian (182.7 +/-0.7 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Thouars (Deux-Sèvres, France), S Saumur. The protected stratotype lies in an old quarry.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Latin: Toarcium</p>
        In short

        The Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary is marked by a major faunal turnover and regional stratigraphic gaps, followed by a global Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) recorded as black shales (such as the well-known «Posidonienschiefer» of Southern Germany, equivalent to the French «schistes-carton»).

        Age
        Toarcian
        • Late Toarcian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Age
          late Toarcian
        • Middle Toarcian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          valid formal name
          In short
          The Middle Toarcian is defined biostratigraphically by the ammonite genera Hildoceras and Haugia.
          Age
          middle Toarcian
        • Early Toarcian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          valid formal name
          In short

          The Early Toarcian is characterized almost worldwide by black shales (among which the well-known «Posidonienschiefer» of Southern Germany, and the French «schistes-carton») with an ammonite fauna composed mainly of dactylioceratids, harpoceratids and early hildoceratids.

          Age
          early Toarcian
          • Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

            Rank
            Oceanic Anoxic Event
            Status
            informal term
            In short

            Major oceanic anoxic event of the Early Toarcian (around 183 Ma ago), documented by black shale deposits found on all major continents (no oceanic drilling cores have recovered black shales of this age as there is little or no Toarcian ocean crust remaining in the world ocean). This event correlates with a marine extinction event.

      • Pliensbachian (190.8 +/-1.0 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the village of Pliensbach (Baden-Württemberg, S Germany), 30 km E Stuttgart.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Pliensbachian
        • Domerian

          Name Origin

          Named after Monte Domaro (Italia), Val Trompia / Lombardia.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          informal term
          In short
          Informal substage corresponding to the late Pliensbachian.
          Age
          late Pliensbachian (= Domerian)
        • Carixian

          Name Origin

          Named after Charmouth (Dorset, UK).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          informal term
          Nomenclatorial Remarks
          Latin: Carixium
          In short
          First, informal substage of the Pliensbachian.
          Age
          early Pliensbachian (= Carixian)
      • Sinemurian (199.3 +/-0.3 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Sémur-en-Auxois (Côte-d'Or, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Latin: Sinemurium</p>
        Age
        Sinemurian
        • Lotharingian

          Name Origin

          Named after the Lorraine region (Lotharingium = carolingian province), NE France.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          obsolete term (disused)
          In short

          Former chronostratigraphic subdivision corresponding to the Late Sinemurian substage.

          Age
          late Sinemurian
      • Hettangian (201.3 +/-0.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Hettange (Moselle, N France), just south of the border with Luxembourg,

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Jurassic.

        Age
        Hettangian
  • Triassic (251.902 +/- 0.024 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    Name derived from the classical three-fold subdivision in the germanic facies realm.

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    In short

    Tectonically rather quiet period inbetween the Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles. The first deposits are transgressive on a vast peneplain.

    Nomenclatorial Remarks

    die Trias (DE), le Trias (FR)

    • Late Triassic (~ 237 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Carnian
      • Rhaetian (~ 208.5 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Rhaetian Alps (Switzerland, Austria and Italy)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Rhaetian
      • Norian (~ 227 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Noric Alps / Noricum (Latin): ancient Roman province south of the Danube River in present-day Austria.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Norian
        • Sevatian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Local substage corresponding to the Late Norian (Late Triassic).
          Age
          Norian
        • Alaunian

          Name Origin

          Named after the Hallaun people in Hollein (Tyrol, Austria).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Local substage corresponding to the Middle Norian (Late Triassic).
          Age
          Norian
        • Lacian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Local substage corresponding to the Early Norian (Late Triassic).
          Age
          Norian
      • Carnian (~ 237 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named atfer the Carnic Alps zwischen Austria and Italy (East Tyrol, Carinthia, Friuli and Veneto).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Carnian
        • Tuvalian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Age
          Late Carnian
        • Julian

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Age
          Middle Carnian
    • Middle Triassic (247.2 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Anisian
      • Ladinian (~ 242 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Ladini people of the Dolomites, N Italy.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Ladinian
        • Longobardian

          Name Origin

          Name derived fromthe term Longobardi, designating the territories controlled by the Lombards in Italy.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Last, informal substage of the Ladinian.
          Age
          Late Ladinian
        • Fassanian

          Name Origin

          Named after the Val di Fassa (Italia).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          First, informal substage of the Ladinian. Originally based on the Buchenstein Beds, it corresponds to a major transgressive interval.
          Age
          Early Ladinian
      • Anisian (247.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Enns (= Anisus) River at Grossreifling (Austrian Alps).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Nomenclatorial Remarks
        <p>Virglorien supérieur</p>
        In short

        First stage of the Middle Triassic.

        Age
        Anisian
        • Illyrian

          Name Origin

          Named after the antique region Illyria (western part of the Balkan Peninsula).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Last substage of the Anisian (Middle Triassic).
          Age
          Late Anisian
        • Pelsonian

          Name Origin

          Named after Lake Pelso = Lake Balaton (Transdanubian region, Hungary.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Third substage of the Anisian.
          Age
          Anisian
        • Bithynian

          Name Origin

          Named after the Roman province Bithynia (NW Turkey).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          In short
          Second substage of the Anisian (Middle Triassic).
          Age
          Anisian
        • Aegean

          Name Origin

          Named after the Aegean Sea (Greece).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Nomenclatorial Remarks
          Ägäissches Meer = mer Égée
          In short
          First substage of the Anisian (Middle Triassic).
          Age
          Early Anisian
    • Early Triassic (251.902 +/-0.024 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Induan
      • Olenekian (251.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Olenek = Olenyok River, N Siberian Russia

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        In Europe the Olenekian is the time when the deposition of a large part of the Buntsandstein occured .

        Age
        Olenekian
        • Spathian

          Name Origin

          Leonard Frank Spath (1882-1957), British geologist and paleontologist.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
        • Smithian

          Name Origin
          James Perrin Smith (1864-1931), US geologist and paleontologist.
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
      • Induan (251.902 +/-0.024 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Indus River in the Salt Range of Pakistan.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Induan
        • Dienerian

          Name Origin

          Karl Diener (1862-1928), Austrian geologist, paleontologist and alpinist.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
        • Griesbachian

          Name Origin
          Griesbach
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
  • Permian (298.90 +/-0.15 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    Named after the former Perm Governorate (Russia).

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    • Lopingian (259.51 +/-0.21 Ma)

      Name Origin

      Named after the town of Leping = Loping (Jiangxi Province, China).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Wuchiapingian
      • Changhsingian (254.14 +/-0.07 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Changhsingian
      • Wuchiapingian (259.51 +/-0.21 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Wuchiapingian
    • Guadalupian (273.01 +/-0.14 Ma)

      Name Origin

      Named after the Guadalupe Mountains (Texas, USA).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Roadian
      • Capitanian (264.28 +/-0.16 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Capitan Reef in the Guadalupe Mountains (Texas, USA).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Capitanian
      • Wordian (266.9 +/-0.4 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Word Formation (Word Ranch, Glass Mountains) of the North American Permian Basin.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Wordian
      • Roadian (273.01 +/-0.14 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Road Canyon Member of the Word Formation (Texas, USA).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Roadian
    • Cisuralian (298.9 +/-0.15 Ma)

      Name Origin

      Named after the Cisural Mountains (western, European part of the Ural Mountains).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Age
      Asselian
      • Kungurian (283.5 +/-0.6 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Kungur (Russia), near Perm.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Kungurian
      • Artinskian (290.1 +/-0.26 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Artinsk = Arti (Russia), S Perm.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Stage of the Early Permian.

        Age
        Artinskian
      • Sakmarian (293.52 +/-0.17 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Sakmara River (Russia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Sakmarian
      • Asselian (298.9 +/-0.15 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Assel River, southern Ural Mountains (Kazakhstan / Bashkortostan).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        First stage of the Cisuralian and hence base of the Permian.

        Age
        Asselian
  • Carboniferous (358.9 +/-0.4 Ma)

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    • Pennsylvanian (323.2 +/-0.4 Ma)

      Name Origin

      Named after the Pennsylvania state (USA).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      In short

      Late Carboniferous epoch.

      Age
      Bashkirian
      • Late Pennsylvanian (307.0 +/-0.1 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        • Gzhelian (303.7 +/-0.1 Ma)

          Name Origin

          Named after the village of Gzhel = Gjel (Russia), 50 km SE Moscow.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
        • Kasimovian (307.0 +/-0.1 Ma)

          Name Origin

          Named after the town of Kasimov (Russia).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
      • Middle Pennsylvanian (315.2 +/-0.2 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        • Moscovian (315.2 +/-0.2 Ma)

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
      • Early Pennsylvanian (323.2 +/-0.4 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        • Bashkirian (323.2 +/-0.4 Ma)

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
    • Mississippian (358.9 +/-0.4 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      • Late Mississippian (330.9 +/-0.2 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        • Serpukhovian (330.9 +/-0.2 Ma)

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
      • Middle Mississippian (346.7 +/-0.4 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        • Visean (346.7 +/-0.4 Ma)

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
      • Early Mississippian (358.9 +/-0.4 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        • Tournaisian (358.9 +/-0.4 Ma)

          Name Origin

          Named after the town of Tournay

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
  • Devonian (419.2 +/-3.2 Ma)

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    • Late Devonien (382.7 +/-1.6 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Frasnian
      • Famennian (372.2 +/-1.6 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Devonian
      • Frasnian (382.7 +/-1.6 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Frasne (France), near Tournay.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Devonian
    • Middle Devonian (393.3 +/-1.2 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid
      • Givetian (387.7 +/-0.8 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Givet (Ardennes, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short
        Second stage of the Middle Devonian, originally defined based on the Givet Limestone.
        Age
        Middle Devonian
      • Eifelian (393.3 +/-1.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Eifel region (Prusse rhénane)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Middle Devonian
    • Early Devonian (419.2 +/-3.2 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Lochkovian
      • Emsian (407.6 +/-2.6 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Early Devonian
      • Pragian (410.8 +/-2.8 Ma)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Early Devonian
      • Lochkovian (419.2 +/-3.2 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the town of Lochkhow (Bohemia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Early Devonian
  • Silurian (443.8 +/-1.5 Ma)

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    • Pridoli (423.0 +/-2.3 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Silurian
    • Ludlow (427.4 +/-0.5 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Silurian
      • Ludfordian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Silurian
      • Gorstian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Silurian
    • Wenlock (433.4 +/-0.8 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Silurian
      • Homerian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Silurian
      • Sheinwoodian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Silurian
    • Llandovery (443.8 +/-1.5 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Silurian
      • Telychian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Silurian
      • Aeronian

        Name Origin

        Cemcoed-Aeron Farm near Llandovery, Powys (Wales, UK)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        In short

        Second stage of the Llandovery Series (Early Silurian).

        Age
        Silurian
      • Rhuddanian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Silurian
  • Ordovician (485.4 +/-1.9 Ma)

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    • Late Ordovician

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      • Hirnantian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Ordovician
      • Katian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Ordovician
      • Sandbian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Ordovician
    • Middle Ordovician

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      • Darriwilian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Middle Ordovician
      • Dapingian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Middle Ordovician
    • Early Ordovician

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      • Floian

        Name Origin

        Flo Parish, village in Västergötland, southern Sweden

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Age
        Early Ordovician
      • Tremadocian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Early Ordovician
  • Cambrian (538.8 +/-0.2 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    Derived from the Latinised form of the Welsh name Cymru (Wales).

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Cambrian
    In short

    First system (and hence base) of the Paleozoic.

    Nomenclatorial Remarks

    From the Old Welsh combrog = compatriot.

    According to Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae, the Trojan Brutus had three sons among whom (having subdued Gogmagog) he divided his lands after landing in Britain. His elder son, Locrinus, received the land between the rivers Humber and Severn, which he called Loegria (a Latinization of the Welsh name Lloegr, "England"). His second son, Albanactus, got the lands beyond the Humber, which took from him the name of Albany (Yr Alban in Welsh: Scotland). The younger son, Camber, was bequeathed everything beyond the Severn, which was called after him "Cambria".

    • Furongian

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid
      Age
      Late Cambrian
      • [Stage 10]

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        In short
        Last stage of the Cambrian (late Furongian).
        Age
        Late Cambrian
      • Jiangshanian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Cambrian
      • Paibian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Late Cambrian
    • Miaolingian

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      unknown status
      Age
      Cambrian
      • Guzhangian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Cambrian
      • Drumian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Cambrian
      • Wuliuan

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Age
        Cambrian
    • [Series 2]

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      unknown status
      Age
      Cambrian
      • [Stage 4]

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Age
        Cambrian
      • [Stage 3]

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Age
        Cambrian
    • Terreneuvian

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid
      Age
      Early Cambrian
      • [Stage 2]

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Age
        Early Cambrian
      • Fortunian

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Age
        Early Cambrian
  • Proterozoic (2500 Ma)

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Eon
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Proterozoic
    In short
    ... banded iron stones (2800-1800 Ma), tillites (2600-2100, 850 and 600 Ma) ...
    • Neoproterozoic (1000 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      valid
      In short
      Last era of the Proterozoic.
      Age
      Proterozoic
      • Ediacaran (~ 635 Ma)

        Name Origin

        Named after the Ediacara Hills (South Australia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Period
        Status
        valid
        In short
        Last period of the Neoproterozoic (ca. 635-541 Ma), with a peculiar soft-bodied fauna.
        Age
        Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic)
      • Cryogenian (~ 720 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From krýos and génesis (Greek), meaning "cold" resp. "birth".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        Middle period of the Neoproterozoic, characterised by cold climatic conditions («Snowball Earth» ; Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations). Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic)
      • Tonian (1000 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From tóno (Greek), meaning "stretch".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        First period of the Neoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic)
    • Mesoproterozoic (1600 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      valid
      Age
      Proterozoic
      • Stenian (1200 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From stenós (Greek), meaning "narrow".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        Last period of the Mesoproterozoic, during which the supercontinent Rodinia assembled. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic)
      • Ectasian (1400 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From éktasis (Greek), meaning "extension".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        Second period of the Mesoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic)
      • Calymmian (1600 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From kálymma (Greek), meaning "cover".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short

        First period of the Mesoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.

        Age
        Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic)
    • Paleoproterozoic (2500 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      valid
      Age
      Proterozoic
      • Statherian (1800 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From statherós (Greek), meaning "stable, firm".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        Last period of the Paleoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
      • Orosirian (2050 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From oroseirá (Greek), meaning "mountain range".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short

        Third period of the Paleoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.

        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
      • Rhyacian (2300 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From rhýax (Greek), meaning "stream of lava".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        Second period of the Paleoproterozoic : Bushveld Igneous Complex, Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
      • Siderian (2500 Ma)

        Name Origin

        From sídēros (Greek), meaning "iron".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        In short
        First period of the Paleoproterozoic, characterised by a peak in the deposition of banded iron formations (BIFs). Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
  • Archean (4000 Ma)

    Origin of the Name
    archeo (Latin): old (see also Grand Canyon, Colorado).
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Eon
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Archean
    In short
    ... composed of granulites, green belts, non-metamorphic sedimentary rocks (argilites, arkoses, sandstones, rarely carbonates and evaporites), as well as first banded iron-stones.
    • Neoarchean (2800 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Archean
    • Mesoarchean (3200 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Archean
    • Paleoarchean (3600 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Archean
    • Eoarchean (4000 Ma)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Age
      Archean
  • Hadean (~ 4600 Ma)

    Origin of the Name

    Named after Hades, the Greek god of the underworld.

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Eon
    Status
    valid formal name
    Age
    Hadean
Back to top