• Quaternary (2.58 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    Geological period beginning with the Gauss/Matuyama palaeomagnetic reversal and largely influenced by successive glacials in a context of increased global ice volume. In Switzerland one can assume that all of the (peri)glacial deposits belong to the Quaternary.
    Age
    Gelasian - Holocene
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    In 2009, the base of the Quaternary was defined at 2.58 Ma BP (base of the Gelasian stage at the GSSP of Monte San Nicola near Gela, Sicily ; Gibbard et al. 2010). Previously, the boundary was situated at 1.81 Ma BP, as defined at the type locality of the Calabrian stage at Vrica in southern Italy (Aguirre & Pasini 1985).
    • Holocene (11.7 ka) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      holos = fully, entirely , kaïno = recent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      Most recent stratigraphic unit referring to the warm episod that began with the end of the last glacial period.
      Age
      Holocene - Holocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      Many different subdivision schemes have been developed for the Holocene depending on the considered region and/or marker (climate and sea-level change, geomorphological and hydrological processes, vegetational developments, faunal migrations, archaeological data). Alternatively radiocarbon years have also been directly used for ordering observed geological and biological events.
      • Subatlantic Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        Valid name
        In Short
        Current climatic/palynological stage of the European Quaternary (approximate age range: from 2800-2450 calBP = 850-500 BC to present).
        Age
        Holocene - Holocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Subboreal Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        Valid name
        In Short
        Palynological stage of the European Quaternary (approximate age range: 5500-2800 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene - Holocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Atlantic Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Warm and moist climatic phase originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs.
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        Valid name
        In Short
        Playnological stage depicting a climatic optimum in Europe, and characterised by the presence of oak, elm, linden and iva (approximate range: 9000-5500 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene - Holocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Boreal Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Cold climatic phase originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs.
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        Valid name
        In Short
        Palynological stage of the European Quaternary (approximate age range: 10200-9000 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene - Holocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        Originally encompassed the Preboreal as well.
      • Preboreal Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Transitional climatic phase originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs.
        Rank
        climato/palynostratigraphy
        Status
        informal term
        Valid name
        In Short
        Palynological stage of the European Quaternary, at the base of the Holocene (approximate age range: 11650-10200 calBP).
        Age
        Holocene - Holocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Pleistocene (2.58 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      pleistos = le plus , kaïno = récent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Gelasian -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Late Pleistocene (126 ka) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        By definition, the Late Pleistocene corresponds to the last interglacial–glacial cycle (Gondiswil Interglacial and Birrfeld Glacial in Switzerland).
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Younger Dryas Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Cold floral stage at the end of the Late Pleistocene.
          Age
          Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Allerød Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the town of Allerød (Denmark).

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Warmer climatic oscillation of the late glacial Pleistocene, identified on the basis of pollen analysis.
          Age
          Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Scandinavia.
          Comment
          -
        • Older Dryas Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Bølling Show details

          Origin of the Name
          série de tourbes découvertes au lac Bølling, dans le Jutland central
          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Floral stage
          Age
          Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Oldest Dryas Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

          Rank
          climato/palynostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Eemian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the river Eem in the area of the city of Amersfoort (Netherlands).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Initial palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Late Pleistocene («Tarantian») of NW Europe, roughly corresponding to MIS-5e and to the Riss-Würm Interglacial.
          Age
          Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Middle Pleistocene (781 ka) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        In Switzerland the age of the Hochterrasse deposits roughly coincides with the Middle Pleistocene.
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Saalian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the river Saale (Deutschland).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Terminal substage of the Middle Pleistocene of NW Europe, between Holsteinian and Eemian, characterised by cold climate (culminating in the Alpine region with the Riss glaciation).
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Holsteinian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the Holstein region (N Germany).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle Pleistocene (Ionian) of NW Europe, corresponding to MIS-11 and to the Mindel-Riss Interglacial.
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Elsterian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the river Weisse Elster (E Germany), a tributary of the river Saale.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Substage of the Middle Pleistocene of NW Europe, corresponding to MIS-12 and characterised by a cold climate (culminating in the Alpine region with the Mindel glaciation).
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Cromerian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the East Anglian town of Cromer (UK).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          Initial palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle Pleistocene («Ionian») of NW Europe, encompassing several glacial/interglacial cycles under a relatively mild climate (Günz-Mindel Interglacial).
          Age
          Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Eastern England (UK)
          Comment
          The earliest interglacial of the «Cromerian Complex» dates from the end of the Early Pleistocene.
      • Early Pleistocene (2.58 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        -
        Valid name
        In Short
        Geological subepoch characterised by a predominantly reversed polarised paleomagnetic field (Matuyama) and the onset of large glacial fluctuations.
        Age
        Gelasian - Calabrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Calabrian (1.80 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the Calabria Region (Italy).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          Second substage of the Early Pleistocene.
          Age
          Early Pleistocene - Early Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Calabria (Italy).
          Comment
          -
          • Sicilian Show details

            Origin of the Name
            -
            Rank
            chronostratigraphic Substage
            Status
            valid
            Valid name
            In Short
            Regional substage (= late Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
            Age
            Calabrian - Calabrian
            Thickness
            -
            Geographical extent
            -
            Type area
            -
            Comment
            -
          • Emilian Show details

            Origin of the Name
            -
            Rank
            chronostratigraphic Substage
            Status
            valid
            Valid name
            In Short
            Regional substage (= middle Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
            Age
            Calabrian - Calabrian
            Thickness
            -
            Geographical extent
            -
            Type area
            -
            Comment
            -
          • Santernian Show details

            Origin of the Name
            -
            Rank
            chronostratigraphic Substage
            Status
            valid
            Valid name
            In Short
            Regional substage (= early Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
            Age
            Calabrian - Calabrian
            Thickness
            -
            Geographical extent
            -
            Type area
            -
            Comment
            -
        • Gelasian (2.58 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name
          Gela (Italia), Sicilia
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          Early Pleistocene - Early Pleistocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
  • Neogene (~ 23 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    neos = new , genos = birth
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    Aquitanian - Piacenzian
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Pliocene (~5.3 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      plios = plus , kaïno = récent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Zanclean - Piacenzian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Piacenzian (~3.6 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Piacenzia (Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        late Pliocene - late Pliocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Zanclean (~5 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Derived from Zancla, the pre-Roman name for the town of Messina in Sicily (Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Pliocene.
        Age
        Pliocene - Pliocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Miocene (~23 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      meios = moins , kaïno = récent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Aquitanian - Messinian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Messinian (~7 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Miocene.
        Age
        late Miocene - late Miocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Sicilia (Italia)
        Comment
        During the Messinian Salinity Crisis the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian (from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma) which ended with the Zanclean flood. Up to 3000 m thick evaporites were desposited in the deepest part of the basin.
      • Tortonian (~11.6 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the city of Tortona (Piemont, Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Stage of the Late Miocene.
        Age
        late Miocene - late Miocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Serravallian (~13.8 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Serravalle Scrivia (Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Stage of the Middle Miocene.
        Age
        middle Miocene - middle Miocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Langhian (~16.0 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Langhe area north of Ceva (Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Stage of the Middle Miocene.
        Age
        middle Miocene - middle Miocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Nördlinger-Ries-Impakt Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          undefined
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Meteorischer Impakt im Grenzgebiet zwischen Schwäbischer Alb und Fränkischer Alb, der durch Coesit-führende Impaktite (insb. Suevit = Schwabenstein) und Tektite (sog. Moldavit) bewiesen wurde.
          Age
          Langhian - Langhian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Burdigalian (~20.4 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Bordeaux = Burdigala(Gironde, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second stage of the Miocene.
        Age
        early Miocene - early Miocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Gironde (France)
        Comment
        -
      • Aquitanian (~23 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Aquitaine region (France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Miocene Series, and hence base of the Neogene System.
        Age
        early Miocene - early Miocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Aquitaine Basin, France
        Comment
        Formerly attributed to the Oligocene according to some authors.
  • Palaeogene (~ 66 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    palaeos = ancient , genos = birth
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    Danian - late Oligocene
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Oligocene (~34 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      oligos = peu , kaïno = récent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Rupelian - late Oligocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Chattian (~28 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Chatti tribe (Deutschland).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Oligocene - Oligocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Rupelian (~34 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Rupel river (Belgium).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Oligocene. Its definition was originally based on the Rupel Group.
        Age
        early Oligocene - early Oligocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Eocene (~56 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      eos = aurore, début , kaïno = récent
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Ypresian - Priabonian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Priabonian (~38 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Priabona (Vicenza, Italy).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Eocene. Definition originally based on the «assises de la Granella», «groupe des couches à Orbitoides de Priabona» and «marnes de Brendola».
        Age
        late Eocene - late Eocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Southern Europe (Mesogea).
        Comment
        Formerly considered as equivalent to the Bartonian.
      • Bartonian (~41 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Barton-on-Sea (Hampshire, UK).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second stage of the Middle Eocene. Its definition was originally based both on the Barton Beds (Hampshire) and the Sables d'Auvers-Beauchamp (Paris Basin).
        Age
        middle Eocene - middle Eocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Northern Europe, Paris Basin.
        Comment
        Encompassed initially the Priabonian (= ex Ludian) as well, and thus formed the Late Eocene. It is now attributed to the Middle Eocene, the Late Eocene corresponding only to the Priabonian.
        • Marinesian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the village of Marines (Val-d'Oise, France)

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Second substage of the Bartonian in the Paris Basin. Original definition based on the «Sables de Marines». It corresponds to the Late Bartonian of the International Time Scale.
          Age
          Bartonian - Bartonian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Paris Basin (France)
          Comment
          Formerly constituted the Middle Bartonian, as the Ludian (= Priabonian) was still considered as part of the Bartonian.
        • Auversian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the town of Auvers-sur-Oise (Val d'Oise, France) ; le stratotype des sablières du Bois-le-Roi est en cours d'aménagement.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          First substage of the Bartonian in the Paris Basin. It corresponds to the Early Bartonian of the International Time Scale.
          Age
          early Bartonian - early Bartonian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Paris Basin (France)
          Comment
          La formation des Sables d’Auvers(-Beauchamp) est typiquement grossière, à graviers, galets, débris de coquilles et fossiles roulés ; les stratifications obliques témoignent d’un dépôt peu profond en eaux agitées.
      • Lutetian (~48 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Paris = Lutetia (France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        middle Eocene - middle Eocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Paris Basin (France)
        Comment
        -
      • Ypresian (~56 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Ypres = Ieper(Belgium).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Eocene.
        Age
        early Eocene - early Eocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        cf. Grube Messel (Deutschland)
        • Cuisian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the village of Cuise-la-Motte (Oise, France).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Last, informal substage of the Ypresian.
          Age
          late Ypresian - late Ypresian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Paris Basin (France)
          Comment
          -
        • Sparnacian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the town of Épernay = Sparnacum (Marne, France).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Early Ypresian of the Paris Basin.
          Age
          early Eocene - early Eocene
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Paris Basin (France)
          Comment
          Synonym to the Ilerdian substage.
    • Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Global thermal maximum marked by a strong negative anomaly in δ13C values at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Paleocene (~66 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name

      palaeos = ancient , eos = dawn, kaïno = recent (i.e. Palaeo-Eocene, see Pulvertaft 1999)

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Thanetian (~59 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Isle of Thanet (Kent, UK).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Paleocene.
        Age
        late Paleocene - late Paleocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Selandian (~62 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Zealand island (Denmark).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        middle Paleocene - middle Paleocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Danian (~ 66 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Latin name for Denmark.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Paleocene (and hence of the Cenozoic as well).
        Age
        early Paleocene - early Paleocene
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        Originally considered as part of the Cretaceous.
  • Cretaceous (~ 145 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name

    Named derived from the characteristic chalk deposits (Latin: creta = craie, Kreide) of the Paris-London Basin.

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    Berriasian - Maastrichtian
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    Bassin de Paris (France)
    Comment
    -
    • Late Cretaceous (~ 100 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Cenomanian - Maastrichtian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Maastrichtian (~ 71 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Maastricht (Netherlands)
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Cretaceous (and hence of the Mesozoic as well).
        Age
        Maastrichtian - Maastrichtian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Campanian (~ 84 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Champagne de Saintonge (Charentes, France), near Cognac.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Campanian - Campanian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Charentes (Aquitaine Basin, France)
        Comment
        Part of the disused «Senonian».
      • Santonian (~ 86 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the former province of Saintonge (Charentes, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Santonian - Santonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Charentes (Aquitaine Basin, France)
        Comment
        Part of the disused «Senonian».
      • Coniacian (~ 89 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Cognac (Charente-Maritime, France), where the historical stratotype lies.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Initially defined as the basal stage of the «Craie supérieure» (chalk ; cf. Cretaceous).
        Age
        Coniacian - Coniacian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Charente-Maritime (Aquitaine Basin, France)
        Comment
        Part of the disused «Senonian».
      • Turonian (~ 94 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Names after the town of Tours = Turonia (Indre-et-Loire, France)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Turonian - Turonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Touraine (Paris Basin, France)
        Comment
        Formerly part of the disused «Middle Cretaceous».
      • Cenomanian/Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE = OAE-2) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Oceanic Anoxic Event
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Oceanic anoxic event at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary.
        Age
        Late Cenomanian - Early Turonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Cenomanian (~ 100 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named atfer the town of Le Mans (Sarthe, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage og the Late Cretaceous.
        Age
        Cenomanian - Cenomanian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Sarthe (Paris Basin, France)
        Comment
        Formerly part of the disused «Middle Cretaceous».
    • Early Cretaceous (~ 145 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Berriasian - Albian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Albian (~ 112 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Aube region (France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Early Cretaceous.
        Age
        Albian - Albian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Aube (Paris Basin, France)
        Comment
        Formerly part of the disused «Middle Cretaceous».
      • Aptian (~ 125 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Apt (Vaucluse, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Stage of the Early Cretaceous.
        Age
        Aptian - Aptian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Vaucluse (France)
        Comment
        -
      • Barremian (~ 130 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Barrême (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        ... based on the Marno-calcaires de Barrême.
        Age
        Barremian - Barremian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (France)
        Comment
        -
      • Hauterivian (~ 134 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Hauterive (NE), NE Neuchâtel.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Hauterivian - Hauterivian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Jura neuchâtelois
        Comment
        The detailed position of the lower boundary remained long confuse: the "Marnes à Asteria" were considered as Hauterivian by Desor & Gressly 1859, Renevier 1874 and Baumberger & Moulin 1898, while this level is generally placed at the top of the Valanginian since Baumberger 1901.
      • Valanginian (~ 140 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Valangin (NE), at the upper end of the Gorges du Seyon (see also inventory of Swiss geotopes n°245).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second stage of the Early Cretaceous.
        Age
        Valanginian - Valanginian
        Thickness
        Approx. 16 m at the type-locality.
        Historical stratotype of the Valanginian stage at Valangin.
        Historical stratotype of the Valanginian stage at Valangin.
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Jura neuchâtelois
        Comment
        Initially the Valanginian also encompassed the Berriasian (= «Infravalangien» auct.), which is now recognized as a distinct formal stage. Lory (1898) and Paquier (1900) restricted the Valanginian to exclude the Berriasian. The detailed position of the upper boundary also remained confuse ("Marnes à Asteria").
      • Berriasian (~ 145 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Berrias (Ardèche, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Cretaceous.
        Age
        Berriasian - Berriasian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Ardèche (France)
        Comment
        Initially incorporated as a substage in the Valanginian (= «Infravalangien» auct.), until Lory (1898) and Paquier (1900) restricted the Valanginian to exclude the Berriasian (further used by Mazenot 1939 and ratified in 1963).
  • Jurassic (~ 200 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name

    Named after the Jura Mountains (France, Switzerland).

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    Hettangian - Tithonian
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    Jura Mountains (France, Switzerland)
    Comment
    -
    • Late Jurassic (~ 161 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Oxfordian - Tithonian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Tithonian (~ 150 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named derived from the Greek mythology: Tithon was the son of Laomedon of Troy, who fell in love with Eos, Greek goddess of the dawn (thus prefiguring the Cretaceous system).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Jurassic.
        Age
        Tithonian - Tithonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Kimmeridgian (~ 155 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Kimmeridge on the Dorset coast (UK). The Kimmeridge Clay Formation is the main oil source rock in the North Sea petroleum province.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Kimmeridgian - Kimmeridgian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Dorset (UK)
        Comment
        -
      • Oxfordian (~ 161 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the city of Oxford (UK).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Oxfordian - Oxfordian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Oxfordshire (UK)
        Comment
        -
    • Middle Jurassic (~ 175 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Aalenian - Callovian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Callovian (~ 165 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named derived from the old spelling of Kellaways Bridge (Wiltshire, UK), 2 miles NE Chippenham.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Middle Jurassic.
        Age
        Callovian - Callovian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Wiltshire (UK)
        Comment
        -
      • Bathonian (~ 168 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Bath (Somerset, UK), near Bristol. The city itself is largely built of Bath Stone, a bright white oolithic limestone that is quarried nearby.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Bathonian - Bathonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Somerset (UK)
        Comment
        -
      • Bajocian (~ 172 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Bayeux (Calvados, France) in Normandy.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Bajocian - Bajocian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Paris Basin (France)
        Comment
        -
      • Aalenian (~ 175 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Aalen (Baden-Württemberg, S Germany), 100 km E Stuttgart.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Middle Jurassic.
        Age
        Aalenian - Aalenian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Schwäbische Alb (Baden-Württemberg, S Germany)
        Comment
        Formerly attributed to the «Lias» (i.e. Early Jurassic).
    • Early Jurassic (~ 200 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Hettangian - Toarcian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Toarcian (~ 183 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Thouars (Deux-Sèvres, France), S Saumur. The protected stratotype lies in an old quarry.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        The Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary is marked by a major faunal turnover and regional stratigraphic gaps, followed by a global Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) recorded as black shales (such as the well-known «Posidonienschiefer» of Southern Germany, equivalent to the French «schistes-carton»).
        Age
        Toarcian - Toarcian
        Thickness
        -
        Historical stratotype of the Toarcian stage at Thouars (Deux-Sèvres, France) (14.09.2001 – A. Morard)..
        Historical stratotype of the Toarcian stage at Thouars (Deux-Sèvres, France) (14.09.2001 – A. Morard)..
        Candidate GSSP at Peniche, Portugal (06.10.2005 - A. Morard).
        Candidate GSSP at Peniche, Portugal (06.10.2005 - A. Morard).
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Deux-Sèvres (Paris Basin, France)
        Comment
        Originally (d'Orbigny 1849), the Toarcian encompassed the whole Aalenian and part of the Bajocian as well.
        • Late Toarcian Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          late Toarcian - late Toarcian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Middle Toarcian Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          The Middle Toarcian is defined biostratigraphically by the ammonite genera Hildoceras and Haugia.
          Age
          middle Toarcian - middle Toarcian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          The Middle Toarcian is rather poorly documented in Switzerland. When present it occurs either in the younger part of the posidonia shales facies, or as a condensed horizon at the base of units of mainly Late Toarcian age. It is better developped in the rosso ammonitco facies of the Southern Alps and in the austroalpine Allgäu Fm.
        • Early Toarcian Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          The Early Toarcian is characterized almost worldwide by black shales (among which the well-known «Posidonienschiefer» of Southern Germany, and the French «schistes-carton») with an ammonite fauna composed mainly of dactylioceratids, harpoceratids and early hildoceratids.
          Age
          early Toarcian - early Toarcian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          In Switzerland, the Early Toarcian is recorded as posidonia shales (e.g. Rietheim Mb. in the Swiss Jura, Couches du Creux de l'Ours of the Préalpes Médianes) or as hiatal, condensed or reworked horizons (sometimes conglomeratic such as at the base of the Mols Mb. in the Helvetic Realm or as Fe/Mg-crusts such as at the top of the austroalpine Agnelli Fm.). In the southern Alps, the rosso ammonitico facies starts during the Early Toarcian.
      • Pliensbachian (~ 190 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the village of Pliensbach (Baden-Württemberg, S Germany), 30 km E Stuttgart.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Pliensbachian - Pliensbachian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Schwäbische Alb (Baden-Württemberg, Süddeutschland)
        Comment
        Sometimes still informally subdivided into Carixian and Domerian substages.
        • Domerian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Names after Monte Domaro (Lombardia, N Italy).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          late Pliensbachian (= Domerian) - late Pliensbachian (= Domerian)
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Carixian Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after Charmouth (Dorset, UK).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          informal term
          Valid name
          In Short
          First, informal substage of the Pliensbachian.
          Age
          early Pliensbachian (= Carixian) - early Pliensbachian (= Carixian)
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Dorset (UK)
          Comment
          -
      • Sinemurian (~ 196 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Sémur-en-Auxois (Côte-d'Or, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Sinemurian - Sinemurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Yonne and Côte-d'Or (Paris Basin, Bourgogne, France)
        Comment
        Formerly restricted to its early part, followed by the disused Lotharingian.
        • «Lotharingian»

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the Lorraine region (Lotharingium = carolingian province), NE France.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphy
          Status
          obsolete term (disused)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Former chronostratigraphic subdivision corresponding to the Late Sinemurian substage.
          Age
          late Sinemurian - late Sinemurian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Lorraine (Paris Basin, France)
          Comment
          -
      • Hettangian (~ 200 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Hettange (Moselle, N France), just south of the border with Luxembourg,

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Jurassic.
        Age
        Hettangian - Hettangian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Moselle (Paris Basin, France)
        Comment
        Formerly forming, together with the Rhaetian, the so-called «Infralias».
  • Triassic (~ 252 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    Name derived from the classical three-fold subdivision in the germanic facies realm.
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    Tectonically rather quiet period inbetween the Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles. The first deposits are transgressive on a vast peneplain.
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Late Triassic (~ 229 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Carnian - Rhaetian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Rhaetian (~ 204 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Rhaetian Alps (Switzerland, Austria and Italy)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Rhaetian - Rhaetian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Rhaetian Alps
        Comment
        Originally considered as part of the «Lias» (i.e. Early Jurassic) and forming, together with the Hettangian, the so-called «Infralias». The stratotype corresponds to the Kössen Formation at Kendelbachgraben, Sankt Wolfgang, Austria.
      • Norian (~ 217 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Noric Alps / Noricum (Latin): ancient Roman province south of the Danube River in present-day Austria.
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Norian - Norian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Sevatian

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          Norian - Rhaetian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Alaunian

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the Hallaun people in Hollein (Tyrol, Austria).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Local substage corresponding to the Middle Norian (Late Triassic).
          Age
          Norian - Norian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Lacian

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Carnian (~ 229 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named atfer the Carnic Alps zwischen Austria and Italy (East Tyrol, Carinthia, Friuli and Veneto).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Carnian - Carnian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Tuvalian

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          Late Carnian - Late Carnian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Julian

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          Middle Carnian - Middle Carnian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
    • Middle Triassic (~ 246 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Anisian - Ladinian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Ladinian (~ 237 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Ladini people of the Dolomites, N Italy.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Ladinian - Ladinian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Longobardian Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Last, informal substage of the Ladinian.
          Age
          Late Ladinian - Late Ladinian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Fassanian Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          First, informal substage of the Ladinian. Originally based on the Buchenstein Beds, it corresponds to a major transgressive interval.
          Age
          Early Ladinian - Early Ladinian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Anisian (~ 246 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Enns (= Anisus) River at Grossreifling (Austrian Alps).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Middle Triassic.
        Age
        Anisian - Anisian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Austrian Alps.
        Comment
        -
        • Illyrian

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the antique region Illyria (western part of the Balkan Peninsula).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Last substage of the Anisian (Middle Triassic).
          Age
          Late Anisian - Late Anisian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Pelsonian

          Origin of the Name

          Named after Lake Pelso = Lake Balaton (Transdanubian region, Hungary.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Third substage of the Anisian.
          Age
          Anisian - Anisian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Bithynian

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the Roman province Bithynia (NW Turkey).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          Second substage of the Anisian (Middle Triassic).
          Age
          Anisian - Anisian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Gebze area (Kocaeli peninsula, NW Turkey).
          Comment
          -
        • Aegean

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the Aegean Sea (Greece).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          First substage of the Anisian (Middle Triassic).
          Age
          Early Anisian - Early Anisian
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          Chios Island (Greece).
          Comment
          -
    • Early Triassic (~ 252 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Induan - Olenekian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Olenekian (~ 249 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Olenek = Olenyok River, N Siberian Russia
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        In Europe the Olenekian is the time when the deposition of a large part of the Buntsandstein occured .
        Age
        Olenekian - Olenekian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        Before the subdivision in Olenekian and Induan became established, both stages formed the Scythian stage. It is sometimes divided into the Smithian and the Spathian substages.
        • Spathian

          Origin of the Name

          Leonard Frank Spath (1882-1957), British geologist and paleontologist.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Smithian

          Origin of the Name
          James Perrin Smith (1864-1931), US geologist and paleontologist.
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Induan (~ 252 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Indus River in the Salt Range of Pakistan.
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Induan - Induan
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Dienerian

          Origin of the Name

          Karl Diener (1862-1928), Austrian geologist, paleontologist and alpinist.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Griesbachian

          Origin of the Name
          Griesbach
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Substage
          Status
          local name (informal)
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
  • Permian (298.90 +/-0.15 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name

    Named after the former Perm Governorate (Russia).

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Equivalency between the International Chronostratigraphic Chart and the NW-European subdivisions for the Permian.
    Equivalency between the International Chronostratigraphic Chart and the NW-European subdivisions for the Permian.
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    Ural Mountains
    Comment
    -
    • Lopingian (~260 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the town of Leping = Loping (Jiangxi Province, China).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Changhsingian (~254 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Changhsingian - Changhsingian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Wuchiapingian (~260 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Wuchiapingian - Wuchiapingian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Guadalupian (~272 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the Guadalupe Mountains (Texas, USA).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Roadian - Capitanian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Capitanian (~265 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Capitan Reef in the Guadalupe Mountains (Texas, USA).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Capitanian - Capitanian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Wordian (~269 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Word Formation (Word Ranch, Glass Mountains) of the North American Permian Basin.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Wordian - Wordian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Roadian (~272 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Road Canyon Member of the Word Formation (Texas, USA).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Roadian - Roadian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Cisuralian (~299 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the Cisural Mountains (western, European part of the Ural Mountains).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Asselian - Kungurian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      Ural Mountains
      Comment
      -
      • Kungurian (~284 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Kungur (Russia), near Perm.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Kungurian - Kungurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Ural Mountains
        Comment
        -
      • Artinskian (~290 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Artinsk = Arti (Russia), S Perm.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Stage of the Early Permian.
        Age
        Artinskian - Artinskian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Ural Mountains
        Comment
        The Artinskian originally encompassed the Asselian and Sakmarian as well.
      • Sakmarian (~295 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Sakmara River (Russia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Sakmarian - Sakmarian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Ural Mountains
        Comment
        -
      • Asselian (~299 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Assel River, southern Ural Mountains (Kazakhstan / Bashkortostan).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        First stage of the Cisuralian and hence base of the Permian.
        Age
        Asselian - Asselian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Ural Mountains
        Comment
        -
  • Carboniferous (358.9 +/-0.4 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Equivalency between the International Chronostratigraphic Chart and the NW-European subdivisions for the Carboniferous.
    Equivalency between the International Chronostratigraphic Chart and the NW-European subdivisions for the Carboniferous.
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Pennsylvanian (~323 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the Pennsylvania state (USA).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      Late Carboniferous epoch.
      Age
      Bashkirian - Gzhelian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Late Pennsylvanian (~307 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Gzhelian (~304 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the village of Gzhel = Gjel (Russia), 50 km SE Moscow.

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
        • Kasimovian (~307 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the town of Kasimov (Russia).

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Middle Pennsylvanian (~315 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Moscovian (~315 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Early Pennsylvanian (~323 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Bashkirian (~323 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
    • Mississippian (~359 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Late Mississippian (~331 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Serpukhovian (~331 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Middle Mississippian (~347 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Visean (~347 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name
          -
          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
      • Early Mississippian (~359 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        Subepoch
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        -
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
        • Tournaisian (~359 Ma) Show details

          Origin of the Name

          Named after the town of Tournay

          Rank
          chronostratigraphic Stage
          Status
          valid formal name
          Valid name
          In Short
          -
          Age
          -
          Thickness
          -
          Geographical extent
          -
          Type area
          -
          Comment
          -
  • Devonian (419.2 +/-3.2 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Late Devonien (382.7 +/-1.6 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Frasnian - Famennian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Famennian (372.2 +/-1.6 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Devonian - Late Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Frasnian (382.7 +/-1.6 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Frasne (France), near Tournay.

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Devonian - Late Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Middle Devonian (393.3 +/-1.2 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Givetian (387.7 +/-0.8 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Givet (Ardennes, France).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second stage of the Middle Devonian, originally defined based on the Givet Limestone.
        Age
        Middle Devonian - Middle Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Eifelian (393.3 +/-1.2 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Eifel region (Prusse rhénane)

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Middle Devonian - Middle Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Early Devonian (419.2 +/-3.2 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Lochkovian - Emsian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Emsian (407.6 +/-2.6 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Devonian - Early Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Pragian (410.8 +/-2.8 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Devonian - Early Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Lochkovian (419.2 +/-3.2 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the town of Lochkhow (Bohemia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Devonian - Early Devonian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
  • Silurian (443.8 +/-1.5 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Pridoli (423.0 +/-2.3 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Silurian - Silurian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Ludlow (427.4 +/-0.5 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Silurian - Silurian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Ludfordian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Gorstian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Wenlock (433.4 +/-0.8 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Silurian - Silurian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      NW England
      Comment
      -
      • Homerian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Sheinwoodian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Llandovery (443.8 +/-1.5 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Silurian - Silurian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Telychian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Aeronian (~439 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Cemcoed-Aeron Farm near Llandovery, Powys (Wales, UK)
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second stage of the Llandovery Series (Early Silurian).
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        Wales, UK
        Comment
        -
      • Rhuddanian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Silurian - Silurian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
  • Ordovician (485.4 +/-1.9 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Late Ordovician Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Hirnantian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Ordovician - Late Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Katian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Ordovician - Late Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Sandbian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Ordovician - Late Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Middle Ordovician Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Darriwilian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Middle Ordovician - Middle Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Dapingian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Middle Ordovician - Middle Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Early Ordovician Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      -
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Floian (~478 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name
        Flo Parish, village in Västergötland, southern Sweden
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid formal name
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Ordovician - Early Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Tremadocian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Ordovician - Early Ordovician
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
  • Cambrian (541.0 +/-1.0 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name

    Derived from the Latinised form of the Welsh name Cymru (Wales).

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Period
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    First system (and hence base) of the Paleozoic.
    Age
    Cambrian - Cambrian
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Furongian Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Late Cambrian - Late Cambrian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • [Stage 10] Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last stage of the Cambrian (late Furongian).
        Age
        Late Cambrian - Late Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Jiangshanian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Cambrian - Late Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Paibian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Late Cambrian - Late Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • [Series 3] Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      unknown status
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Cambrian - Cambrian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Guzhangian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Cambrian - Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Drumian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Cambrian - Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • [Stage 5] Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Cambrian - Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • [Series 2] Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      unknown status
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Cambrian - Cambrian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • [Stage 4] Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Cambrian - Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • [Stage 3] Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Cambrian - Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Terreneuvian Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Epoch
      Status
      valid
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Early Cambrian - Early Cambrian
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • [Stage 2] Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        unknown status
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Cambrian - Early Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Fortunian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Stage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        -
        Age
        Early Cambrian - Early Cambrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
  • Proterozoic (2500 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Eon
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    ... banded iron stones (2800-1800 Ma), tillites (2600-2100, 850 and 600 Ma) ...
    Age
    Proterozoic - Proterozoic
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Neoproterozoic (1000 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      valid
      Valid name
      In Short
      Last era of the Proterozoic.
      Age
      Proterozoic - Proterozoic
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Ediacaran (~ 635 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        Named after the Ediacara Hills (South Australia).

        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Period
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last period of the Neoproterozoic (ca. 635-541 Ma), with a peculiar soft-bodied fauna.
        Age
        Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic) - Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Cryogenian (~ 720 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From krýos and génesis (Greek), meaning "cold" resp. "birth".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Middle period of the Neoproterozoic, characterised by cold climatic conditions («Snowball Earth» ; Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations). Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic) - Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Tonian (1000 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From tóno (Greek), meaning "stretch".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        First period of the Neoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic) - Neoproterozoic (= Late Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Mesoproterozoic (1600 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      valid
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Proterozoic - Proterozoic
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Stenian (1200 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From stenós (Greek), meaning "narrow".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last period of the Mesoproterozoic, during which the supercontinent Rodinia assembled. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic) - Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Ectasian (1400 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From éktasis (Greek), meaning "extension".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second period of the Mesoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic) - Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Calymmian (1600 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From kálymma (Greek), meaning "cover".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        First period of the Mesoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic) - Mesoproterozoic (= Middle Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Paleoproterozoic (2500 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      valid
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Proterozoic - Proterozoic
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
      • Statherian (1800 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From statherós (Greek), meaning "stable, firm".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Last period of the Paleoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic) - Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Orosirian (2050 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From oroseirá (Greek), meaning "mountain range".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Third period of the Paleoproterozoic. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic) - Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Rhyacian (2300 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From rhýax (Greek), meaning "stream of lava".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Second period of the Paleoproterozoic : Bushveld Igneous Complex, Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation. Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic) - Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Siderian (2500 Ma) Show details

        Origin of the Name

        From sídēros (Greek), meaning "iron".

        Rank
        chronostratigraphy
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        First period of the Paleoproterozoic, characterised by a peak in the deposition of banded iron formations (BIFs). Its base has been defined chronometrically.
        Age
        Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic) - Paleoproterozoic (= Early Proterozoic)
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
  • Archean (4000 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    archeo (Latin): old (see also Grand Canyon, Colorado).
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Eon
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    ... composed of granulites, green belts, non-metamorphic sedimentary rocks (argilites, arkoses, sandstones, rarely carbonates and evaporites), as well as first banded iron-stones.
    Age
    Archean - Archean
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    Grand Canyon (Colorado, USA)
    Comment
    The oldest known rocks on Earth are dated at approx. 3800 Ma (epimetamorphosed dykes in the region of Issua). Before that time the material was permanently recycled and submitted to a strong meteoritic bombardment.
    • Neoarchean (2800 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Archean - Archean
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Mesoarchean (3200 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Archean - Archean
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Paleoarchean (3600 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Archean - Archean
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Eoarchean (4000 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      -
      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Archean - Archean
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
  • Hadean (~ 4600 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name

    Named after Hades, the Greek god of the underworld.

    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Eon
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    -
    Age
    Hadean - Hadean
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    ~4600–4000 My