Pleistocene (2.58 Ma)

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Representation and status

Index
-
CMYK Color
0 / 5 / 30 / 0
RGB color
R: 255 G: 242 B: 174
Rank
chronostratigraphic Epoch
Validity
Unit is in Use
Status
valid formal name
SCS note
-
SCS date
-
Comment
-

Nomenclature

German
Pleistozän
French
Pléistocène
Italian
Pleistocene
English
Pleistocene (2.58 Ma)
Origin of the Name
pleistos = le plus , kaïno = récent
Historical Variants
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Nomenclatorial Remarks
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Synonyms

Synonyms
Non-synonyms
Possible confusion

Description

Description
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Geomorphology
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Thickness
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Components

Lithological content
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Mineral content
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Fossil content
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Hierarchy and succession

Units at roof
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Units at floor
Lateral equivalents
Upper boundary
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Lower boundary
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Stratigraphic discussion
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Age

Age at top
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Note about top
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Age at base
Gelasian
Note about base
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Dating method
The base of the Early Pleistocene (and base of the Quaternary) is defined at the Gauss-Matuyama paleomagnetic reversal, around 2.58 Ma, which also roughly corresponds to the onset of MIS-103.

Geography

Geographical extent
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Type area
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Type locality
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Type profile
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Reference profiles
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Point of interest
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Paleogeography and tectonic

Paleogeography
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Kind of protolith
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Conditions of formation
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Sequence
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Tectonic Unit (resp. main category)
Time Scale
  • Paratethys
  • Mammal stages
Metamorphism
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Metamorphic facies
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Note on metamorphism
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References

Definition
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Revision
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Important publications
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Material and varia

Applications
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  • Late Pleistocene (126 ka) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Stage
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    By definition, the Late Pleistocene corresponds to the last interglacial–glacial cycle (Gondiswil Interglacial and Birrfeld Glacial in Switzerland).
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Younger Dryas Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Cold floral stage at the end of the Late Pleistocene.
      Age
      Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Allerød Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the town of Allerød (Denmark).

      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Warmer climatic oscillation of the late glacial Pleistocene, identified on the basis of pollen analysis.
      Age
      Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      Scandinavia.
      Comment
      -
    • Older Dryas Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Bølling Show details

      Origin of the Name
      série de tourbes découvertes au lac Bølling, dans le Jutland central
      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Floral stage
      Age
      Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Oldest Dryas Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the cold-climate wildflower Dryas octopetala Linnaeus.

      Rank
      climato/palynostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Eemian Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the river Eem in the area of the city of Amersfoort (Netherlands).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Initial palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Late Pleistocene («Tarantian») of NW Europe, roughly corresponding to MIS-5e and to the Riss-Würm Interglacial.
      Age
      Late Pleistocene - Late Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
  • Middle Pleistocene (781 ka) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphic Stage
    Status
    valid formal name
    Valid name
    In Short
    In Switzerland the age of the Hochterrasse deposits roughly coincides with the Middle Pleistocene.
    Age
    -
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Saalian Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the river Saale (Deutschland).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Terminal substage of the Middle Pleistocene of NW Europe, between Holsteinian and Eemian, characterised by cold climate (culminating in the Alpine region with the Riss glaciation).
      Age
      Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Holsteinian Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the Holstein region (N Germany).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle Pleistocene (Ionian) of NW Europe, corresponding to MIS-11 and to the Mindel-Riss Interglacial.
      Age
      Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Elsterian Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the river Weisse Elster (E Germany), a tributary of the river Saale.

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Substage of the Middle Pleistocene of NW Europe, corresponding to MIS-12 and characterised by a cold climate (culminating in the Alpine region with the Mindel glaciation).
      Age
      Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -
    • Cromerian Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the East Anglian town of Cromer (UK).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphy
      Status
      informal term
      Valid name
      In Short
      Initial palynostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle Pleistocene («Ionian») of NW Europe, encompassing several glacial/interglacial cycles under a relatively mild climate (Günz-Mindel Interglacial).
      Age
      Middle Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      Eastern England (UK)
      Comment
      The earliest interglacial of the «Cromerian Complex» dates from the end of the Early Pleistocene.
  • Early Pleistocene (2.58 Ma) Show details

    Origin of the Name
    -
    Rank
    chronostratigraphy
    Status
    -
    Valid name
    In Short
    Geological subepoch characterised by a predominantly reversed polarised paleomagnetic field (Matuyama) and the onset of large glacial fluctuations.
    Age
    Gelasian - Calabrian
    Thickness
    -
    Geographical extent
    -
    Type area
    -
    Comment
    -
    • Calabrian (1.80 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name

      Named after the Calabria Region (Italy).

      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Stage
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      Second substage of the Early Pleistocene.
      Age
      Early Pleistocene - Early Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      Calabria (Italy).
      Comment
      -
      • Sicilian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Substage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Regional substage (= late Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
        Age
        Calabrian - Calabrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Emilian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Substage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Regional substage (= middle Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
        Age
        Calabrian - Calabrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
      • Santernian Show details

        Origin of the Name
        -
        Rank
        chronostratigraphic Substage
        Status
        valid
        Valid name
        In Short
        Regional substage (= early Calabrian, Early Pleistocene) in Italy.
        Age
        Calabrian - Calabrian
        Thickness
        -
        Geographical extent
        -
        Type area
        -
        Comment
        -
    • Gelasian (2.58 Ma) Show details

      Origin of the Name
      Gela (IT), Sicilia
      Rank
      chronostratigraphic Stage
      Status
      valid formal name
      Valid name
      In Short
      -
      Age
      Early Pleistocene - Early Pleistocene
      Thickness
      -
      Geographical extent
      -
      Type area
      -
      Comment
      -